Sunday, June 27, 2010

Use of comparable and comparator interface

In java the element in collections can be sorted by using TreeSet or TreeMap. To sort the data elements a class needs to implement Comparator or Comparable interface. Thats why all Wrapper classes like Integer,Double and String class implements Comparable interface.

A class implementing Comparable interface need to override compareTo(Object obj) method and put the logic for sorting.

The method returns an int value :-1,0,1
It will return -1 : If this object is lesser than the passed object
It will return 0 : If this object is same the passed object
It will return 1 : If this object is greater than the passed object

Consider a class Person.

class Person {
public String name;
public String lastName;

public Person(String name, String lastName){;
public String getName(){
return name;
public String getLastName(){
return lastName;

public static void main(String arg[]){
List myList = new ArrayList();

myList.add(new Person("Robert","USA"));
myList.add(new Person("Andy","UK"));
myList.add(new Person("Harish","India"));
for(Person person : myList){
System.out.println("My name is "+person.getName());
Output is :
My name is Robert
My name is Andy
My name is Harish

But now i want that the objects to be sorted on name basis should be retrieved in sorted order.
Consider a class Person.

class Person implements Comparable{
public String name;
public String lastName;

public Person(String name, String lastName){;
public String getName(){
return name;
public String getLastName(){
return lastName;

public int compareTo(Object obj){
Person p = (Person)obj;

public static void main(String arg[]){
List myList = new ArrayList();

myList.add(new Person("Robert","USA"));
myList.add(new Person("Andy","UK"));
myList.add(new Person("Harish","India"));
for(Person person : myList){
System.out.println("My name is "+person.getName());
Output is :
My name is Andy
My name is Harish
My name is Robert

Couple of things which needs to be taken in consideration:
1) Collections.sort() will sort only the collection having objects which implements either one of the comparing interface.
2) Collections.sort() will sort the same list.

Comparator interface is used when an extra logic is required to sort the objects. One need to override compare(Object obj1, Object obj2) method.For example you want the list of Person object to be sorted on the basis of complete name i.e "name lastName" but also on the other hand doesnt want to change the Person class default sorting implementation or Person class is a jar so so no code modification in it can be done. First create a Custom Comparator.

public class MyCustomComparator implements Comparator{
public int compare(Object obj1, Object obj2){
Person p1 =(Person) obj1;
Person p2 =(Person) ob2;
String p1Name = p1.getName()+ " " +p1.getLastName();
String p2Name = p2.getName()+ " " +p2.getLastName();
return p1Name.toCompareTo(p2Name);

// Changes made in main method of Person class.
public static void main(String arg[]){
List myList = new ArrayList();

myList.add(new Person("Robert","USA"));
myList.add(new Person("Robert","UK"));
myList.add(new Person("Robert","India"));
Collections.sort(myList new MyCustomComparator());
for(Person person : myList){
System.out.println("My name is "+person.getName() + " " + person.getLastName());
My name is Robert India
My name is Robert UK
My name is Robert USA
Couple of things which needs to be taken in consideration:
1) For Comparator interface you need to override method compare(obj)
2) In collections.sort() the instance of Comparator need to be passed. In this example the list is sorted according to the custom Comparator created

Java classloaders

Classloader allows JVM to load classes. Regular Java applications running from command line involve three classloaders – Bootstrap, Extensions and System-Classpath classloaders. The three class loaders have a parent child relationship among themselves

1. Classes in the list of bootstrap classes— These are classes that embody the Java platform, such as the classes in rt.jar.

2. Classes that appear in the list of extension classes— These classes use the Extension Mechanism Framework to extend the Java platform, with archive files (.jar, .zip, etc.) located in the /lib/ext directory of the runtime environment.

3. User classes—These are classes that do not use the extension mechanism architecture identified using the -classpath command-line option or the CLASSPATH environment variable.


Classloader problems, when they occur are difficult to debug. There are only three basic principles to understand.

Classloader hierarchy illustrating the delegation.

Classloader hierarchy illustrating the delegation.

The first principle is Delegation Principle. According to this principle, if a particular class is not loaded already, the classloaders delegate the requests to load that class to their parent classloaders. This delegation continues until the top of the hierarchy is reached and the primordial classloader loads the class. The System-ClassPath classloader loads a class called MyApp. MyApp creates a new instance of java.util.Vector. Assume that java.util.Vector has not been loaded already. Since System-Classpath classloader loaded the MyApp class, it first asks its parent, the extension classloader to load the class. The extension classloader asks the Bootstrap classloader to load java.util.Vector. Since java.util.Vector is a J2SE class, the bootstrap classloader loads it and returns. Consider a slightly different scenario. In this case, MyApp creates a new instance of MyClass, another application specific class. Assume that MyClass has not been loaded yet. As usual, when the System-Classpath classloader receives the request to load the class, it delegates it to its parent. The request finally reaches the Bootstrap classloader. It cannot find the class. Hence its child, Extensions classloader tries to load it. It cannot find it either. Finally the request comes back to the System-Classpath classloader. It finds the class and loads it. This explains the alternative path when everything is not a happy day scenario.

 Classloader hierarchy illustrating the delegation when classes cannot be found

Classloader hierarchy illustrating the delegation when classes cannot be found

 Classloader hierarchy and classes visibility.

Classloader hierarchy and classes visibility.

The second principle is the Visibility principle. According to this principle, Classes loaded by parent classloaders are visible to child classloaders but not vice versa. What this means is that a class can only see other classes loaded by the ClassX’s classloader or one of its parents. The reverse is not true i.e. a class loaded by ClassX’s parent classloader cannot see ClassX. An example will make things clearer. Look at above figure. Four classloaders are shown- ClassLoaders A, B, X and Y. Class A is the topmost Classloader. ClassLoader B is its child. ClassLoaders X and Y are B’s siblings. Each of them loads classes with same names i.e. A, B, X and Y. A is the only class visible as far as other classes loaded by ClassLoader A are concerned. As far as classes loaded by ClassLoader B is concerned, A and B are the visible classes. Similarly for classes loaded by ClassLoader X, classes A, B and X are visible, but not class Y. Sibling classloaders cannot see each other’s classes.

The third principle is the class Uniqueness Principle. According to this principle, when a classloader loads a class, the child classloaders in the hierarchy will never reload the class. This follows from the delegation principle since a classloader always delegates class loading to its parents. The child classloader will load it (or try to load it) only if the parent hierarchy fails to load the class. Thus the uniqueness of the class is maintained. An interesting scenario emerges when both parent and child classloaders load the same class. You might think how is this feasible after all. Isn’t this contradicting the class uniqueness principle? To answer this question look at figure again. Let us assume that none of the classes have been loaded anywhere in the hierarchy. Let us also suppose that X, loaded by ClassLoader X, forcefully uses its classloader to load B. This can be done as shown in example below by using an API such as Class.forName(). The code shows such a scenario. Using Class.forName() 01 public class X { 02 03 public X() { 04 ClassLoader cl = this.getClass().getClassLoader(); 05 Class B = Class.forName(“B”, true, cl); 06 } 07 } In the constructor for X, the class B is loaded by explicitly using Person’s parent classloader, i.e. the parent of the classloader that loaded Person. By doing so, the delegation is overridden and B is loaded by ClassLoaderX – the classloader of X. Now suppose that another class loaded by ClassLoader B tries to access B, it cannot find it and hence follows the delegation principle. Since the delegation principle only consults the parents, ClassLoader B also eventually loads Class B. When some other code tries to compare two objects of type B – each loaded by different classloaders, it gets a ClassCastException.

Use of hashCode() and equals()

Use of hashCode() and equals().

Object class provides two methods hashcode() and equals() to represent the identity of an object. It is a common convention that if one method is overridden then other should also be implemented.

Before explaining why, let see what the contract these two methods hold. As per the Java API documentation:

Whenever it is invoked on the same object more than once during an execution of a Java application, the hashcode() method must consistently return the same integer, provided no information used in equals() comparisons on the object is modified. This integer need not remain consistent from one execution of an application to another execution of the same application.
If two objects are equal according to the equals(object) method, then calling the hashCode() method on each of the two objects must produce the same integer result.
It is NOT required that if two objects are unequal according to the equals(Java.lang.Object) method, then calling the hashCode() method on each of the two objects must produce distinct integer results. However, the programmer should be aware that producing distinct integer results for unequal objects may improve the performance of hashtables.

Now, consider an example where the key used to store the in Hashmap is an Integer. Consider that Integer class doesn't implement hashcode() method. The code would look like:

map.put(new Integer(5),"Value1");
String value = (String) map.get(new Integer(5));
//Output : Value is null

Null value will be displayed since the hashcode() method returns a different hash value for the Integer object created at line 2and JVM tries to search for the object at different location.

Now if the integer class has hashcode() method like:

public int hashCode(){
return value;

Everytime the new Integer object is created with same integer value passed; the Integer object will return the same hash value. Once the same hash value is returned, JVM will go to the same memory address every time and if in case there are more than one objects present for the same hash value it will use equals() method to identify the correct object.

Another step of caution that needs to be taken is that while implementing the hashcode() method the fields that are present in the hashcode() should not be the one which could change the state of object.

Consider the example:

public class FourWheeler implements Vehicle {

private String name;

private int purchaseValue;

private int noOfTyres;

public FourWheeler(){}

public FourWheeler(String name, int purchaseValue) { = name;

this.purchaseValue = purchaseValue;


public void setPurchaseValue(int purchaseValue) {

this.purchaseValue = purchaseValue;



public int hashCode() {

final int prime = 31;

int result = 1;

result = prime * result + ((name == null) ? 0 : name.hashCode());

result = prime * result + purchaseValue;

return result;



FourWheeler fourWObj = new FourWheeler(“Santro�,�333333);
//Output: null

We can see that inspite of passing the same object the value returned is null. This is because the hashcode() returned on evaluation will be different since the purchaseValue is set to 555555’ from 333333’.

Though the above implementation is correct but it fails because for generating hashcode a changeable property (in this case price) is selected. To make above implementation correct we can either exclued the property or include some other property like noOfTyres and keep the logic of implementation same.

Hence we can conclude that the hashcode() should contain fields that doesn't change the state of object.

One compatible, but not all that useful, way to define hashCode() is like this:

public int hashcode(){
return 0;
This approach will yield bad performance for the HashMap. The conclusion which can be made is that the hashcode() should(not must) return the same value if the objects are equal. If the objects are not equal then it must return different value.

Consider the example:

public class StringHelper {

private String inputString;

public StringHelper(String string) {




public int hashCode() {

return inputString.length();


public static void main(String[] args) {

StringHelper helperObj = new StringHelper("string");

StringHelper helperObj1 = new StringHelper("string");

if(helperObj.hashCode() == helperObj1.hashCode()){

System.out.println("HashCode are equal");



System.out.println("Objects are equal");


System.out.println("Objects are not equal");



public String getInputString() {

return inputString;


// Output:
HashCode are equal
Objects are not equal

We can see that even though the StringHelper object contains the same value the equals method has returned false but the hashcode method has return true value.

To prevent this inconsistency, we should make sure that we override both methods such that the contract between both methods doesn't fail.

Steps that need to be taken into consideration while implementing equals method.

1. Use the == operator to check if the argument is a reference to this object. If so, return true. This is just a performance optimization, but one that is worth doing if the comparison is potentially expensive.

2. Use the instanceof operator to check if the argument has the correct type.

If not, return false. Typically, the correct type is the class in which the method occurs. Occasionally, it is some interface implemented by this class. Use an interface if the class implements an interface that refines the equals contract to permit comparisons across classes that implement the interface. Collection interfaces such as Set, List, Map, and Map.Entry have this property.

3. Cast the argument to the correct type. Because this cast was preceded by an instanceof test, it is guaranteed to succeed.

4. For each significant field in the class, checks if that field of the argument matches the corresponding field of this object.If all these tests succeed, return true; otherwise, return false

5. When you are finished writing your equals method, ask yourself three questions: Is it symmetric? Is it transitive? Is it consistent?

The correct implementation if equals method for the StringHelper class could be:


public boolean equals(Object obj) {

if (this == obj)

return true;

if (obj == null)

return false;

if (getClass() != obj.getClass())

return false;

final StringHelper other = (StringHelper) obj;

if (inputString == null) {

if (other.inputString != null)

return false;

} else if (!inputString.equals(other.inputString))

return false;

return true;


Advanced Java continued

Q1) What is Serialization?

Ans) Serializable is a marker interface. When an object has to be transferred over a network ( typically through rmi or EJB) or persist the state of an object to a file, the object Class needs to implement Serializable interface. Implementing this interface will allow the object converted into bytestream and transfer over a network.

Q2) What is use of serialVersionUID?

Ans) During object serialization, the default Java serialization mechanism writes the metadata about the object, which includes the class name, field names and types, and superclass. This class definition is stored as a part of the serialized object. This stored metadata enables the deserialization process to reconstitute the objects and map the stream data into the class attributes with the appropriate type
Everytime an object is serialized the java serialization mechanism automatically computes a hash value. ObjectStreamClass's computeSerialVersionUID() method passes the class name, sorted member names, modifiers, and interfaces to the secure hash algorithm (SHA), which returns a hash value.The serialVersionUID is also called suid.
So when the serilaize object is retrieved , the JVM first evaluates the suid of the serialized class and compares the suid value with the one of the object. If the suid values match then the object is said to be compatible with the class and hence it is de-serialized. If not InvalidClassException exception is thrown.

Changes to a serializable class can be compatible or incompatible. Following is the list of changes which are compatible:

* Add fields
* Change a field from static to non-static
* Change a field from transient to non-transient
* Add classes to the object tree

List of incompatible changes:

* Delete fields
* Change class hierarchy
* Change non-static to static
* Change non-transient to transient
* Change type of a primitive field

So, if no suid is present , inspite of making compatible changes, jvm generates new suid thus resulting in an exception if prior release version object is used .
The only way to get rid of the exception is to recompile and deploy the application again.

If we explicitly metion the suid using the statement:

private final static long serialVersionUID =

then if any of the metioned compatible changes are made the class need not to be recompiled. But for incompatible changes there is no other way than to compile again.

Q3) What is the need of Serialization?

Ans) The serialization is used :-

* To send state of one or more object’s state over the network through a socket.
* To save the state of an object in a file.
* An object’s state needs to be manipulated as a stream of bytes.

Q4) Other than Serialization what are the different approach to make object Serializable?

Ans) Besides the Serializable interface, at least three alternate approaches can serialize Java objects:

1)For object serialization, instead of implementing the Serializable interface, a developer can implement the Externalizable interface, which extends Serializable. By implementing Externalizable, a developer is responsible for implementing the writeExternal() and readExternal() methods. As a result, a developer has sole control over reading and writing the serialized objects.
2)XML serialization is an often-used approach for data interchange. This approach lags runtime performance when compared with Java serialization, both in terms of the size of the object and the processing time. With a speedier XML parser, the performance gap with respect to the processing time narrows. Nonetheless, XML serialization provides a more malleable solution when faced with changes in the serializable object.
3)Finally, consider a "roll-your-own" serialization approach. You can write an object's content directly via either the ObjectOutputStream or the DataOutputStream. While this approach is more involved in its initial implementation, it offers the greatest flexibility and extensibility. In addition, this approach provides a performance advantage over Java serialization.

Q5) Do we need to implement any method of Serializable interface to make an object serializable?

Ans) No. Serializable is a Marker Interface. It does not have any methods.

Q6) What happens if the object to be serialized includes the references to other serializable objects?

Ans) If the object to be serialized includes the references to other objects whose class implements serializable then all those object’s state also will be saved as the part of the serialized state of the object in question. The whole object graph of the object to be serialized will be saved during serialization automatically provided all the objects included in the object’s graph are serializable.

Q7) What happens if an object is serializable but it includes a reference to a non-serializable object?

Ans- If you try to serialize an object of a class which implements serializable, but the object includes a reference to an non-serializable class then a ‘NotSerializableException’ will be thrown at runtime.


public class NonSerial {
//This is a non-serializable class

public class MyClass implements Serializable{
private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
private NonSerial nonSerial;
MyClass(NonSerial nonSerial){
this.nonSerial = nonSerial;
public static void main(String [] args) {
NonSerial nonSer = new NonSerial();
MyClass c = new MyClass(nonSer);
try {
FileOutputStream fs = new FileOutputStream("test1.ser");
ObjectOutputStream os = new ObjectOutputStream(fs);
} catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); }
try {
FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream("test1.ser");
ObjectInputStream ois = new ObjectInputStream(fis);
c = (MyClass) ois.readObject();
} catch (Exception e) {

On execution of above code following exception will be thrown – NonSerial

Q8) Are the static variables saved as the part of serialization?

Ans) No. The static variables belong to the class and not to an object they are not the part of the state of the object so they are not saved as the part of serialized object.

Q9) What is a transient variable?

Ans) These variables are not included in the process of serialization and are not the part of the object’s serialized state.

Q10) What will be the value of transient variable after de-serialization?

Ans) It’s default value.
e.g. if the transient variable in question is an int, it’s value after deserialization will be zero.

public class TestTransientVal implements Serializable{

private static final long serialVersionUID = -22L;
private String name;
transient private int age;
TestTransientVal(int age, String name) {
this.age = age; = name;

public static void main(String [] args) {
TestTransientVal c = new TestTransientVal(1,"ONE");
System.out.println("Before serialization: - " + + " "+ c.age);
try {
FileOutputStream fs = new FileOutputStream("testTransients.ser");
ObjectOutputStream os = new ObjectOutputStream(fs);
} catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); }

try {
FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream("testTransients.ser");
ObjectInputStream ois = new ObjectInputStream(fis);
c = (TestTransientVal) ois.readObject();
} catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); }
System.out.println("After de-serialization:- " + + " "+ c.age);


Result of executing above piece of code –
Before serialization: - Value of non-transient variable ONE Value of transient variable 1
After de-serialization:- Value of non-transient variable ONE Value of transient variable 0

Explanation –
The transient variable is not saved as the part of the state of the serailized variable, it’s value after de-serialization is it’s default value.

Q11) Does the order in which the value of the transient variables and the state of the object using the defaultWriteObject() method are saved during serialization matter?

Ans) Yes. As while restoring the object’s state the transient variables and the serializable variables that are stored must be restored in the same order in which they were saved.

Q12) How can one customize the Serialization process? or What is the purpose of implementing the writeObject() and readObject() method?

Ans) When you want to store the transient variables state as a part of the serialized object at the time of serialization the class must implement the following methods –
private void wrtiteObject(ObjectOutputStream outStream)
//code to save the transient variables state as a part of serialized object

private void readObject(ObjectInputStream inStream)
//code to read the transient variables state and assign it to the de-serialized object


public class TestCustomizedSerialization implements Serializable{

private static final long serialVersionUID =-22L;
private String noOfSerVar;
transient private int noOfTranVar;

TestCustomizedSerialization(int noOfTranVar, String noOfSerVar) {
this.noOfTranVar = noOfTranVar;
this.noOfSerVar = noOfSerVar;

private void writeObject(ObjectOutputStream os) {

try {
} catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); }

private void readObject(ObjectInputStream is) {
try {
int noOfTransients = (is.readInt());
} catch (Exception e) {
e.printStackTrace(); }

public int getNoOfTranVar() {
return noOfTranVar;


The value of transient variable ‘noOfTranVar’ is saved as part of the serialized object manually by implementing writeObject() and restored by implementing readObject().
The normal serializable variables are saved and restored by calling defaultWriteObject() and defaultReadObject()respectively. These methods perform the normal serialization and de-sirialization process for the object to be saved or restored respectively.

Q13) If a class is serializable but its superclass in not , what will be the state of the instance variables inherited from super class after deserialization?

Ans) The values of the instance variables inherited from superclass will be reset to the values they were given during the original construction of the object as the non-serializable super-class constructor will run.

public class ParentNonSerializable {
int noOfWheels;

this.noOfWheels = 4;


public class ChildSerializable extends ParentNonSerializable implements Serializable {

private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
String color;

ChildSerializable() {
this.noOfWheels = 8;
this.color = "blue";

public class SubSerialSuperNotSerial {

public static void main(String [] args) {

ChildSerializable c = new ChildSerializable();
System.out.println("Before : - " + c.noOfWheels + " "+ c.color);
try {
FileOutputStream fs = new FileOutputStream("superNotSerail.ser");
ObjectOutputStream os = new ObjectOutputStream(fs);
} catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); }

try {
FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream("superNotSerail.ser");
ObjectInputStream ois = new ObjectInputStream(fis);
c = (ChildSerializable) ois.readObject();
} catch (Exception e) { e.printStackTrace(); }
System.out.println("After :- " + c.noOfWheels + " "+ c.color);


Result on executing above code –
Before : - 8 blue
After :- 4 blue

The instance variable ‘noOfWheels’ is inherited from superclass which is not serializable. Therefore while restoring it the non-serializable superclass constructor runs and its value is set to 8 and is not same as the value saved during serialization which is 4.

Q14) To serialize an array or a collection all the members of it must be serializable. True /False?

Ans) true.

Advanced Java QA


Q1) What is an immutable class?

Ans) Immutable class is a class which once created, it’s contents can not be changed. Immutable objects are the objects whose state can not be changed once constructed. e.g. String class

Q2) How to create an immutable class?

Ans) To create an immutable class following steps should be followed:

1. Create a final class.
2. Set the values of properties using constructor only.
3. Make the properties of the class final and private
4. Do not provide any setters for these properties.
5. If the instance fields include references to mutable objects, don't allow those objects to be changed:
1. Don't provide methods that modify the mutable objects.
2. Don't share references to the mutable objects. Never store references to external, mutable objects passed to the constructor; if necessary, create copies, and store references to the copies. Similarly, create copies of your internal mutable objects when necessary to avoid returning the originals in your methods.

public final class FinalPersonClass {

private final String name;
private final int age;

public FinalPersonClass(final String name, final int age) {
super(); = name;
this.age = age;
public int getAge() {
return age;
public String getName() {
return name;


Q3) Immutable objects are automatically thread-safe –true/false?

Ans) True. Since the state of the immutable objects can not be changed once they are created they are automatically synchronized/thread-safe.

Q4) Which classes in java are immutable?

Ans) All wrapper classes in java.lang are immutable –
String, Integer, Boolean, Character, Byte, Short, Long, Float, Double, BigDecimal, BigInteger

Q5) What are the advantages of immutability?

Ans) The advantages are:
1) Immutable objects are automatically thread-safe, the overhead caused due to use of synchronisation is avoided.
2) Once created the state of the immutable object can not be changed so there is no possibility of them getting into an inconsistent state.
3) The references to the immutable objects can be easily shared or cached without having to copy or clone them as there state can not be changed ever after construction.
4) The best use of the immutable objects is as the keys of a map.


Q1) What are different types of cloning in Java?

Ans) Java supports two type of cloning: - Deep and shallow cloning. By default shallow copy is used in Java. Object class has a method clone() which does shallow cloning.

Q2) What is Shallow copy?

Ans) In shallow copy the object is copied without its contained objects.
Shallow clone only copies the top level structure of the object not the lower levels.
It is an exact bit copy of all the attributes.

Figure 1: Original java object obj

The shallow copy is done for obj and new object obj1 is created but contained objects of obj are not copied.

Shallow Copy
Figure 2: Shallow copy object obj1

It can be seen that no new objects are created for obj1 and it is referring to the same old contained objects. If either of the containedObj contain any other object no new reference is created

Q3) What is deep copy and how it can be acheived?

Ans) In deep copy the object is copied along with the objects it refers to. Deep clone copies all the levels of the object from top to the bottom recursively.

Figure 3 : Original Object obj

When a deep copy of the object is done new references are created.

Deep Copy
Figure 4: obj2 is deep copy of obj1

One solution is to simply implement your own custom method (e.g., deepCopy()) that returns a deep copy of an instance of one of your classes. This may be the best solution if you need a complex mixture of deep and shallow copies for different fields, but has a few significant drawbacks:

* You must be able to modify the class (i.e., have the source code) or implement a subclass. If you have a third-party class for which you do not have the source and which is marked final, you are out of luck.
* You must be able to access all of the fields of the class’s superclasses. If significant parts of the object’s state are contained in private fields of a superclass, you will not be able to access them.
* You must have a way to make copies of instances of all of the other kinds of objects that the object references. This is particularly problematic if the exact classes of referenced objects cannot be known until runtime.
* Custom deep copy methods are tedious to implement, easy to get wrong, and difficult to maintain. The method must be revisited any time a change is made to the class or to any of its superclasses.

Other common solution to the deep copy problem is to use Java Object Serialization (JOS). The idea is simple: Write the object to an array using JOS’s ObjectOutputStream and then use ObjectInputStream to reconsistute a copy of the object. The result will be a completely distinct object, with completely distinct referenced objects. JOS takes care of all of the details: superclass fields, following object graphs, and handling repeated references to the same object within the graph.

* It will only work when the object being copied, as well as all of the other objects references directly or indirectly by the object, are serializable. (In other words, they must implement Fortunately it is often sufficient to simply declare that a given class implements and let Java’s default serialization mechanisms do their thing. Java Object Serialization is slow, and using it to make a deep copy requires both serializing and deserializing.

There are ways to speed it up (e.g., by pre-computing serial version ids and defining custom readObject() and writeObject() methods), but this will usually be the primary bottleneck. The byte array stream implementations included in the package are designed to be general enough to perform reasonable well for data of different sizes and to be safe to use in a multi-threaded environment. These characteristics, however, slow down ByteArrayOutputStream and (to a lesser extent) ByteArrayInputStream .

Q4) What is difference between deep and shallow cloning?

Ans) The differences are as follows:

* Consider the class:

public class MyData{
String id;
Map myData;
The shallow copying of this object will have new id object and values as “” but will point to the myData of the original object. So a change in myData by either original or cloned object will be reflected in other also. But in deep copying there will be new id object and also new myData object and independent of original object but with same values.

* Shallow copying is default cloning in Java which can be achieved using clone() method of Object class. For deep copying some extra logic need to be provided.

Q5) What are the characteristics of a shallow clone?

Ans) If we do a = clone(b)
1) Then b.equals(a)
2) No method of a can modify the value of b.

Q6) What are the disadvantages of deep cloning?

Ans) Disadvantages of using Serialization to achieve deep cloning –

* Serialization is more expensive than using object.clone().
* Not all objects are serializable.
* Serialization is not simple to implement for deep cloned object..

More Collections QA

Q12) Is it better to have a HashMap with large number of records or n number of small hashMaps?

Ans) It depends on the different scenario one is working on:
1) If the objects in the hashMap are same then there is no point in having different hashmap as the traverse time in a hashmap is invariant to the size of the Map.
2) If the objects are of different type like one of Person class , other of Animal class etc then also one can have single hashmap but different hashmap would score over it as it would have better readability.

Q13) Why is it preferred to declare: List list = new ArrayList(); instead of ArrayList = new ArrayList();

Ans) It is preferred because:

1. If later on code needs to be changed from ArrayList to Vector then only at the declaration place we can do that.
2. The most important one – If a function is declared such that it takes list. E.g void showDetails(List list);
When the parameter is declared as List to the function it can be called by passing any subclass of List like ArrayList,Vector,LinkedList making the function more flexible

Q14) What is difference between iterator access and index access?

Ans) Index based access allow access of the element directly on the basis of index. The cursor of the datastructure can directly goto the 'n' location and get the element. It doesnot traverse through n-1 elements.

In Iterator based access, the cursor has to traverse through each element to get the desired element.So to reach the 'n'th element it need to traverse through n-1 elements.

Insertion,updation or deletion will be faster for iterator based access if the operations are performed on elements present in between the datastructure.

Insertion,updation or deletion will be faster for index based access if the operations are performed on elements present at last of the datastructure.

Traversal or search in index based datastructure is faster.

ArrayList is index access and LinkedList is iterator access.

Q15) How to sort list in reverse order?

Ans) To sort the elements of the List in the reverse natural order of the strings, get a reverse Comparator from the Collections class with reverseOrder(). Then, pass the reverse Comparator to the sort() method.

List list = new ArrayList();

Comparator comp = Collections.reverseOrder();

Collections.sort(list, comp)

Q16) Can a null element added to a Treeset or HashSet?

Ans) A null element can be added only if the set contains one element because when a second element is added then as per set defination a check is made to check duplicate value and comparison with null element will throw NullPointerException.
HashSet is based on hashMap and can contain null element.

Q17) How to sort list of strings - case insensitive?

Ans) using Collections.sort(list, String.CASE_INSENSITIVE_ORDER);

Q18) How to make a List (ArrayList,Vector,LinkedList) read only?

Ans) A list implemenation can be made read only using Collections.unmodifiableList(list). This method returns a new list. If a user tries to perform add operation on the new list; UnSupportedOperationException is thrown.

Q19) What is ConcurrentHashMap?

Ans) A concurrentHashMap is thread-safe implementation of Map interface. In this class put and remove method are synchronized but not get method. This class is different from Hashtable in terms of locking; it means that hashtable use object level lock but this class uses bucket level lock thus having better performance.

Q20) Which is faster to iterate LinkedHashSet or LinkedList?

Ans) LinkedList.

Q21) Which data structure HashSet implements

Ans) HashSet implements hashmap internally to store the data. The data passed to hashset is stored as key in hashmap with null as value.

Q22) Arrange in the order of speed - HashMap,HashTable, Collections.synchronizedMap,concurrentHashmap

Ans) HashMap is fastest, ConcurrentHashMap,Collections.synchronizedMap,HashTable.

Q23) What is identityHashMap?

Ans) The IdentityHashMap uses == for equality checking instead of equals(). This can be used for both performance reasons, if you know that two different elements will never be equals and for preventing spoofing, where an object tries to imitate another.

Q24) What is WeakHashMap?

Ans) A hashtable-based Map implementation with weak keys. An entry in a WeakHashMap will automatically be removed when its key is no longer in ordinary use. More precisely, the presence of a mapping for a given key will not prevent the key from being discarded by the garbage collector, that is, made finalizable, finalized, and then reclaimed. When a key has been discarded its entry is effectively removed from the map, so this class behaves somewhat differently than other Map implementations.

Collections Interview Questions & Answers

Q1) What is difference between ArrayList and vector?

Ans: )

1) Synchronization - ArrayList is not thread-safe whereas Vector is thread-safe. In Vector class each method like add(), get(int i) is surrounded with a synchronized block and thus making Vector class thread-safe.

2) Data growth - Internally, both the ArrayList and Vector hold onto their contents using an Array. When an element is inserted into an ArrayList or a Vector, the object will need to expand its internal array if it runs out of room. A Vector defaults to doubling the size of its array, while the ArrayList increases its array size by 50 percent.

Q2) How can Arraylist be synchronized without using Vector?

Ans) Arraylist can be synchronized using:

Collection.synchronizedList(List list)

Other collections can be synchronized:

Collection.synchronizedMap(Map map)

Collection.synchronizedCollection(Collection c)

Q3) If an Employee class is present and its objects are added in an arrayList. Now I want the list to be sorted on the basis of the employeeID of Employee class. What are the steps?

Ans) 1) Implement Comparable interface for the Employee class and override the compareTo(Object obj) method in which compare the employeeID

2) Now call Collections.sort() method and pass list as an argument.

Now consider that Employee class is a jar file.

1) Since Comparable interface cannot be implemented, create Comparator and override the compare(Object obj, Object obj1) method .

2) Call Collections.sort() on the list and pass comparator as an argument.

Q4)What is difference between HashMap and HashTable?

Ans) Both collections implements Map. Both collections store value as key-value pairs. The key differences between the two are

1. Hashmap is not synchronized in nature but hshtable is.

2. Another difference is that iterator in the HashMap is fail-safe while the enumerator for the Hashtable isn't.
Fail-safe - “if the Hashtable is structurally modified at any time after the iterator is created, in any way except through the iterator's own remove method, the iterator will throw a ConcurrentModificationException�

3. HashMap permits null values and only one null key, while Hashtable doesn't allow key or value as null.

Q5) What are the classes implementing List interface?

There are three classes that implement List interface:
1) ArrayList : It is a resizable array implementation. The size of the ArrayList can be increased dynamically also operations like add,remove and get can be formed once the object is created. It also ensures that the data is retrieved in the manner it was stored. The ArrayList is not thread-safe.

2) Vector: It is thread-safe implementation of ArrayList. The methods are wrapped around a synchronized block.

3) LinkedList: the LinkedList also implements Queue interface and provide FIFO(First In First Out) operation for add operation. It is faster if than ArrayList if it performs insertion and deletion of elements from the middle of a list.

Q6) Which all classes implement Set interface?

Ans) A Set is a collection that contains no duplicate elements. More formally, sets contain no pair of elements e1 and e2 such that e1.equals(e2), and at most one null element. HashSet,SortedSet and TreeSet are the commnly used class which implements Set interface.

SortedSet - It is an interface which extends Set. A the name suggest , the interface allows the data to be iterated in the ascending order or sorted on the basis of Comparator or Comparable interface. All elements inserted into the interface must implement Comparable or Comparator interface.

TreeSet - It is the implementation of SortedSet interface.This implementation provides guaranteed log(n) time cost for the basic operations (add, remove and contains). The class is not synchronized.

HashSet: This class implements the Set interface, backed by a hash table (actually a HashMap instance). It makes no guarantees as to the iteration order of the set; in particular, it does not guarantee that the order will remain constant over time. This class permits the null element. This class offers constant time performance for the basic operations (add, remove, contains and size), assuming the hash function disperses the elements properly among the buckets

Q7) What is difference between List and a Set?

1) List can contain duplicate values but Set doesnt allow. Set allows only to unique elements.
2) List allows retrieval of data to be in same order in the way it is inserted but Set doesnt ensures the sequence in which data can be retrieved.(Except HashSet)

Q8) What is difference between Arrays and ArrayList ?

Ans) Arrays are created of fix size whereas ArrayList is of not fix size. It means that once array is declared as :

1. int [] intArray= new int[6];
2. intArray[7] // will give ArraysOutOfBoundException.

Also the size of array cannot be incremented or decremented. But with arrayList the size is variable.

2. Once the array is created elements cannot be added or deleted from it. But with ArrayList the elements can be added and deleted at runtime.

List list = new ArrayList();
list.remove(0) // will remove the element from the 1st location.

3. ArrayList is one dimensional but array can be multidimensional.

int[][][] intArray= new int[3][2][1]; // 3 dimensional array

4. To create an array the size should be known or initalized to some value. If not initialized carefully there could me memory wastage. But arrayList is all about dynamic creation and there is no wastage of memory.

Q9) When to use ArrayList or LinkedList ?

Ans) Adding new elements is pretty fast for either type of list. For the ArrayList, doing random lookup using "get" is fast, but for LinkedList, it's slow. It's slow because there's no efficient way to index into the middle of a linked list. When removing elements, using ArrayList is slow. This is because all remaining elements in the underlying array of Object instances must be shifted down for each remove operation. But here LinkedList is fast, because deletion can be done simply by changing a couple of links. So an ArrayList works best for cases where you're doing random access on the list, and a LinkedList works better if you're doing a lot of editing in the middle of the list.

Source : Read More - from java.sun

Q10) Consider a scenario. If an ArrayList has to be iterate to read data only, what are the possible ways and which is the fastest?

Ans) It can be done in two ways, using for loop or using iterator of ArrayList. The first option is faster than using iterator. Because value stored in arraylist is indexed access. So while accessing the value is accessed directly as per the index.

Q11) Now another question with respect to above question is if accessing through iterator is slow then why do we need it and when to use it.

Ans) For loop does not allow the updation in the array(add or remove operation) inside the loop whereas Iterator does. Also Iterator can be used where there is no clue what type of collections will be used because all collections have iterator.

Q12) Which design pattern Iterator follows?

Ans) It follows Iterator design pattern. Iterator Pattern is a type of behavioral pattern. The Iterator pattern is one, which allows you to navigate through a collection of data using a common interface without knowing about the underlying implementation. Iterator should be implemented as an interface. This allows the user to implement it anyway its easier for him/her to return data. The benefits of Iterator are about their strength to provide a common interface for iterating through collections without bothering about underlying implementation.

Example of Iteration design pattern - Enumeration The class java.util.Enumeration is an example of the Iterator pattern. It represents and abstract means of iterating over a collection of elements in some sequential order without the client having to know the representation of the collection being iterated over. It can be used to provide a uniform interface for traversing collections of all kinds.

Sunday, June 13, 2010

More Core Java QA

70. What is JDBC?- JDBC is a set of Java API for executing SQL statements. This API consists of a set of classes and interfaces to enable programs to write pure Java Database applications.
71. What are drivers available?- a) JDBC-ODBC Bridge driver b) Native API Partly-Java driver c) JDBC-Net Pure Java driver d) Native-Protocol Pure Java driver
72. What is the difference between JDBC and ODBC?- a) OBDC is for Microsoft and JDBC is for Java applications. b) ODBC can’t be directly used with Java because it uses a C interface. c) ODBC makes use of pointers which have been removed totally from Java. d) ODBC mixes simple and advanced features together and has complex options for simple queries. But JDBC is designed to keep things simple while allowing advanced capabilities when required. e) ODBC requires manual installation of the ODBC driver manager and driver on all client machines. JDBC drivers are written in Java and JDBC code is automatically installable, secure, and portable on all platforms. f) JDBC API is a natural Java interface and is built on ODBC. JDBC retains some of the basic features of ODBC.
73. What are the types of JDBC Driver Models and explain them?- There are two types of JDBC Driver Models and they are: a) Two tier model and b) Three tier model Two tier model: In this model, Java applications interact directly with the database. A JDBC driver is required to communicate with the particular database management system that is being accessed. SQL statements are sent to the database and the results are given to user. This model is referred to as client/server configuration where user is the client and the machine that has the database is called as the server. Three tier model: A middle tier is introduced in this model. The functions of this model are: a) Collection of SQL statements from the client and handing it over to the database, b) Receiving results from database to the client and c) Maintaining control over accessing and updating of the above.
74. What are the steps involved for making a connection with a database or how do you connect to a database?a) Loading the driver : To load the driver, Class. forName() method is used. Class. forName(”sun. jdbc. odbc. JdbcOdbcDriver”); When the driver is loaded, it registers itself with the java. sql. DriverManager class as an available database driver. b) Making a connection with database: To open a connection to a given database, DriverManager. getConnection() method is used. Connection con = DriverManager. getConnection (”jdbc:odbc:somedb”, “user”, “password”); c) Executing SQL statements : To execute a SQL query, java. sql. statements class is used. createStatement() method of Connection to obtain a new Statement object. Statement stmt = con. createStatement(); A query that returns data can be executed using the executeQuery() method of Statement. This method executes the statement and returns a java. sql. ResultSet that encapsulates the retrieved data: ResultSet rs = stmt. executeQuery(”SELECT * FROM some table”); d) Process the results : ResultSet returns one row at a time. Next() method of ResultSet object can be called to move to the next row. The getString() and getObject() methods are used for retrieving column values: while(rs. next()) { String event = rs. getString(”event”); Object count = (Integer) rs. getObject(”count”);
75. What type of driver did you use in project?- JDBC- ODBC Bridge driver (is a driver that uses native(C language) libraries and makes calls to an existing ODBC driver to access a database engine).

76. What are the types of statements in JDBC?- Statement: to be used createStatement() method for executing single SQL statement PreparedStatement — To be used preparedStatement() method for executing same SQL statement over and over. CallableStatement — To be used prepareCall() method for multiple SQL statements over and over.
77. What is stored procedure?- Stored procedure is a group of SQL statements that forms a logical unit and performs a particular task. Stored Procedures are used to encapsulate a set of operations or queries to execute on database. Stored procedures can be compiled and executed with different parameters and results and may have any combination of input/output parameters.
78. How to create and call stored procedures?- To create stored procedures: Create procedure procedurename (specify in, out and in out parameters) BEGIN Any multiple SQL statement; END; To call stored procedures: CallableStatement csmt = con. prepareCall(”{call procedure name(?,?)}”); csmt. registerOutParameter(column no. , data type); csmt. setInt(column no. , column name) csmt. execute();
79. What is servlet?- Servlets are modules that extend request/response-oriented servers, such as java-enabled web servers. For example, a servlet might be responsible for taking data in an HTML order-entry form and applying the business logic used to update a company’s order database.
80. What are the classes and interfaces for servlets?- There are two packages in servlets and they are javax. servlet and
81. What is the difference between an applet and a servlet?- a) Servlets are to servers what applets are to browsers. b) Applets must have graphical user interfaces whereas servlets have no graphical user interfaces.
82. What is the difference between doPost and doGet methods?- a) doGet() method is used to get information, while doPost() method is used for posting information. b) doGet() requests can’t send large amount of information and is limited to 240-255 characters. However, doPost()requests passes all of its data, of unlimited length. c) A doGet() request is appended to the request URL in a query string and this allows the exchange is visible to the client, whereas a doPost() request passes directly over the socket connection as part of its HTTP request body and the exchange are invisible to the client.
83. What is the life cycle of a servlet?- Each Servlet has the same life cycle: a) A server loads and initializes the servlet by init () method. b) The servlet handles zero or more client’s requests through service() method. c) The server removes the servlet through destroy() method.
84. Who is loading the init() method of servlet?- Web server
85. What are the different servers available for developing and deploying Servlets?- a) Java Web Server b) JRun g) Apache Server h) Netscape Information Server i) Web Logic
86. How many ways can we track client and what are they?- The servlet API provides two ways to track client state and they are: a) Using Session tracking and b) Using Cookies.
87. What is session tracking and how do you track a user session in servlets?- Session tracking is a mechanism that servlets use to maintain state about a series requests from the same user across some period of time. The methods used for session tracking are: a) User Authentication - occurs when a web server restricts access to some of its resources to only those clients that log in using a recognized username and password. b) Hidden form fields - fields are added to an HTML form that are not displayed in the client’s browser. When the form containing the fields is submitted, the fields are sent back to the server. c) URL rewriting - every URL that the user clicks on is dynamically modified or rewritten to include extra information. The extra information can be in the form of extra path information, added parameters or some custom, server-specific URL change. d) Cookies - a bit of information that is sent by a web server to a browser and which can later be read back from that browser. e) HttpSession- places a limit on the number of sessions that can exist in memory. This limit is set in the session. maxresidents property.
88. What is Server-Side Includes (SSI)?- Server-Side Includes allows embedding servlets within HTML pages using a special servlet tag. In many servlets that support servlets, a page can be processed by the server to include output from servlets at certain points inside the HTML page. This is accomplished using a special internal SSINCLUDE, which processes the servlet tags. SSINCLUDE servlet will be invoked whenever a file with an. shtml extension is requested. So HTML files that include server-side includes must be stored with an . shtml extension.
89. What are cookies and how will you use them?- Cookies are a mechanism that a servlet uses to have a client hold a small amount of state-information associated with the user. a) Create a cookie with the Cookie constructor: public Cookie(String name, String value) b) A servlet can send a cookie to the client by passing a Cookie object to the addCookie() method of HttpServletResponse: public void HttpServletResponse. addCookie(Cookie cookie) c) A servlet retrieves cookies by calling the getCookies() method of HttpServletRequest: public Cookie[ ] HttpServletRequest. getCookie().
90. Is it possible to communicate from an applet to servlet and how many ways and how?- Yes, there are three ways to communicate from an applet to servlet and they are: a) HTTP Communication(Text-based and object-based) b) Socket Communication c) RMI Communication

91. What is connection pooling?- With servlets, opening a database connection is a major bottleneck because we are creating and tearing down a new connection for every page request and the time taken to create connection will be more. Creating a connection pool is an ideal approach for a complicated servlet. With a connection pool, we can duplicate only the resources we need to duplicate rather than the entire servlet. A connection pool can also intelligently manage the size of the pool and make sure each connection remains valid. A number of connection pool packages are currently available. Some like DbConnectionBroker are freely available from Java Exchange Works by creating an object that dispenses connections and connection Ids on request. The ConnectionPool class maintains a Hastable, using Connection objects as keys and Boolean values as stored values. The Boolean value indicates whether a connection is in use or not. A program calls getConnection() method of the ConnectionPool for getting Connection object it can use; it calls returnConnection() to give the connection back to the pool.
92. Why should we go for interservlet communication?- Servlets running together in the same server communicate with each other in several ways. The three major reasons to use interservlet communication are: a) Direct servlet manipulation - allows to gain access to the other currently loaded servlets and perform certain tasks (through the ServletContext object) b) Servlet reuse - allows the servlet to reuse the public methods of another servlet. c) Servlet collaboration - requires to communicate with each other by sharing specific information (through method invocation)
93. Is it possible to call servlet with parameters in the URL?- Yes. You can call a servlet with parameters in the syntax as (?Param1 = xxx || m2 = yyy).
94. What is Servlet chaining?- Servlet chaining is a technique in which two or more servlets can cooperate in servicing a single request. In servlet chaining, one servlet’s output is piped to the next servlet’s input. This process continues until the last servlet is reached. Its output is then sent back to the client.
95. How do servlets handle multiple simultaneous requests?- The server has multiple threads that are available to handle requests. When a request comes in, it is assigned to a thread, which calls a service method (for example: doGet(), doPost() and service()) of the servlet. For this reason, a single servlet object can have its service methods called by many threads at once.
96. What is the difference between TCP/IP and UDP?- TCP/IP is a two-way communication between the client and the server and it is a reliable and there is a confirmation regarding reaching the message to the destination. It is like a phone call. UDP is a one-way communication only between the client and the server and it is not a reliable and there is no confirmation regarding reaching the message to the destination. It is like a postal mail.
97. What is Inet address?- Every computer connected to a network has an IP address. An IP address is a number that uniquely identifies each computer on the Net. An IP address is a 32-bit number.
98. What is Domain Naming Service(DNS)?- It is very difficult to remember a set of numbers(IP address) to connect to the Internet. The Domain Naming Service(DNS) is used to overcome this problem. It maps one particular IP address to a string of characters. For example, www. mascom. com implies com is the domain name reserved for US commercial sites, moscom is the name of the company and www is the name of the specific computer, which is mascom’s server.
99. What is URL?- URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator and it points to resource files on the Internet. URL has four components: http://www. address. com:80/index.html, where http - protocol name, address - IP address or host name, 80 - port number and index.html - file path.
100. What is RMI and steps involved in developing an RMI object?- Remote Method Invocation (RMI) allows java object that executes on one machine and to invoke the method of a Java object to execute on another machine. The steps involved in developing an RMI object are: a) Define the interfaces b) Implementing these interfaces c) Compile the interfaces and their implementations with the java compiler d) Compile the server implementation with RMI compiler e) Run the RMI registry f) Run the application
101. What is RMI architecture?- RMI architecture consists of four layers and each layer performs specific functions: a) Application layer - contains the actual object definition. b) Proxy layer - consists of stub and skeleton. c) Remote Reference layer - gets the stream of bytes from the transport layer and sends it to the proxy layer. d) Transportation layer - responsible for handling the actual machine-to-machine communication.
102. what is UnicastRemoteObject?- All remote objects must extend UnicastRemoteObject, which provides functionality that is needed to make objects available from remote machines.
103. Explain the methods, rebind() and lookup() in Naming class?- rebind() of the Naming class(found in java. rmi) is used to update the RMI registry on the server machine. Naming. rebind(”AddSever”, AddServerImpl); lookup() of the Naming class accepts one argument, the rmi URL and returns a reference to an object of type AddServerImpl.
104. What is a Java Bean?- A Java Bean is a software component that has been designed to be reusable in a variety of different environments.
105. What is a Jar file?- Jar file allows to efficiently deploying a set of classes and their associated resources. The elements in a jar file are compressed, which makes downloading a Jar file much faster than separately downloading several uncompressed files. The package java. util. zip contains classes that read and write jar files.

106. What is BDK?- BDK, Bean Development Kit is a tool that enables to create, configure and connect a set of set of Beans and it can be used to test Beans without writing a code.
107. What is JSP?- JSP is a dynamic scripting capability for web pages that allows Java as well as a few special tags to be embedded into a web file (HTML/XML, etc). The suffix traditionally ends with .jsp to indicate to the web server that the file is a JSP files. JSP is a server side technology - you can’t do any client side validation with it. The advantages are: a) The JSP assists in making the HTML more functional. Servlets on the other hand allow outputting of HTML but it is a tedious process. b) It is easy to make a change and then let the JSP capability of the web server you are using deal with compiling it into a servlet and running it.
108. What are JSP scripting elements?- JSP scripting elements lets to insert Java code into the servlet that will be generated from the current JSP page. There are three forms: a) Expressions of the form <%= expression %> that are evaluated and inserted into the output, b) Scriptlets of the form<% code %>that are inserted into the servlet’s service method, and c) Declarations of the form <%! Code %>that are inserted into the body of the servlet class, outside of any existing methods.
109. What are JSP Directives?- A JSP directive affects the overall structure of the servlet class. It usually has the following form:<%@ directive attribute=”value” %> However, you can also combine multiple attribute settings for a single directive, as follows:<%@ directive attribute1=”value1? attribute 2=”value2? . . . attributeN =”valueN” %> There are two main types of directive: page, which lets to do things like import classes, customize the servlet superclass, and the like; and include, which lets to insert a file into the servlet class at the time the JSP file is translated into a servlet
110. What are Predefined variables or implicit objects?- To simplify code in JSP expressions and scriptlets, we can use eight automatically defined variables, sometimes called implicit objects. They are request, response, out, session, application, config, pageContext, and page.
111. What are JSP ACTIONS?- JSP actions use constructs in XML syntax to control the behavior of the servlet engine. You can dynamically insert a file, reuse JavaBeans components, forward the user to another page, or generate HTML for the Java plugin. Available actions include: jsp:include - Include a file at the time the page is requested. jsp:useBean - Find or instantiate a JavaBean. jsp:setProperty - Set the property of a JavaBean. jsp:getProperty - Insert the property of a JavaBean into the output. jsp:forward - Forward the requester to a newpage. Jsp: plugin - Generate browser-specific code that makes an OBJECT or EMBED
112. How do you pass data (including JavaBeans) to a JSP from a servlet?- (1) Request Lifetime: Using this technique to pass beans, a request dispatcher (using either “include” or forward”) can be called. This bean will disappear after processing this request has been completed. Servlet: request. setAttribute(”theBean”, myBean); RequestDispatcher rd = getServletContext(). getRequestDispatcher(”thepage. jsp”); rd. forward(request, response); JSP PAGE:(2) Session Lifetime: Using this technique to pass beans that are relevant to a particular session (such as in individual user login) over a number of requests. This bean will disappear when the session is invalidated or it times out, or when you remove it. Servlet: HttpSession session = request. getSession(true); session. putValue(”theBean”, myBean); /* You can do a request dispatcher here, or just let the bean be visible on the next request */ JSP Page: 3) Application Lifetime: Using this technique to pass beans that are relevant to all servlets and JSP pages in a particular app, for all users. For example, I use this to make a JDBC connection pool object available to the various servlets and JSP pages in my apps. This bean will disappear when the servlet engine is shut down, or when you remove it. Servlet: GetServletContext(). setAttribute(”theBean”, myBean); JSP PAGE:

113. How can I set a cookie in JSP?- response. setHeader(”Set-Cookie”, “cookie string”); To give the response-object to a bean, write a method setResponse (HttpServletResponse response) - to the bean, and in jsp-file:<% bean. setResponse (response); %>
114. How can I delete a cookie with JSP?- Say that I have a cookie called “foo, ” that I set a while ago & I want it to go away. I simply: <% Cookie killCookie = new Cookie(”foo”, null); KillCookie. setPath(”/”); killCookie. setMaxAge(0); response. addCookie(killCookie); %>
115. How are Servlets and JSP Pages related?- JSP pages are focused around HTML (or XML) with Java codes and JSP tags inside them. When a web server that has JSP support is asked for a JSP page, it checks to see if it has already compiled the page into a servlet. Thus, JSP pages become servlets and are transformed into pure Java and then compiled, loaded into the server and executed.

Java Web development interview questions

1. Can we use the constructor, instead of init(), to initialize servlet? - Yes , of course you can use the constructor instead of init(). There’s nothing to stop you. But you shouldn’t. The original reason for init() was that ancient versions of Java couldn’t dynamically invoke constructors with arguments, so there was no way to give the constructur a ServletConfig. That no longer applies, but servlet containers still will only call your no-arg constructor. So you won’t have access to a ServletConfig or ServletContext.
2. How can a servlet refresh automatically if some new data has entered the database? - You can use a client-side Refresh or Server Push.
3. The code in a finally clause will never fail to execute, right? - Using System.exit(1); in try block will not allow finally code to execute.
4. How many messaging models do JMS provide for and what are they? - JMS provide for two messaging models, publish-and-subscribe and point-to-point queuing.
5. What information is needed to create a TCP Socket? - The Local System?s IP Address and Port Number. And the Remote System’s IPAddress and Port Number.
6. What Class.forName will do while loading drivers? - It is used to create an instance of a driver and register it with the DriverManager. When you have loaded a driver, it is available for making a connection with a DBMS.
7. How to Retrieve Warnings? - SQLWarning objects are a subclass of SQLException that deal with database access warnings. Warnings do not stop the execution of an application, as exceptions do; they simply alert the user that something did not happen as planned. A warning can be reported on a Connection object, a Statement object (including PreparedStatement and CallableStatement objects), or a ResultSet object. Each of these classes has a getWarnings method, which you must invoke in order to see the first warning reported on the calling object
8. SQLWarning warning = stmt.getWarnings();
9. if (warning != null)
10. {
11. while (warning != null)
12. {
13. System.out.println(\"Message: \" + warning.getMessage());
14. System.out.println(\"SQLState: \" + warning.getSQLState());
15. System.out.print(\"Vendor error code: \");
16. System.out.println(warning.getErrorCode());
17. warning = warning.getNextWarning();
18. }
19. }
20. How many JSP scripting elements are there and what are they? - There are three scripting language elements: declarations, scriptlets, expressions.
21. In the Servlet 2.4 specification SingleThreadModel has been deprecated, why? - Because it is not practical to have such model. Whether you set isThreadSafe to true or false, you should take care of concurrent client requests to the JSP page by synchronizing access to any shared objects defined at the page level.
22. What are stored procedures? How is it useful? - A stored procedure is a set of statements/commands which reside in the database. The stored procedure is pre-compiled and saves the database the effort of parsing and compiling sql statements everytime a query is run. Each database has its own stored procedure language, usually a variant of C with a SQL preproceesor. Newer versions of db’s support writing stored procedures in Java and Perl too. Before the advent of 3-tier/n-tier architecture it was pretty common for stored procs to implement the business logic( A lot of systems still do it). The biggest advantage is of course speed. Also certain kind of data manipulations are not achieved in SQL. Stored procs provide a mechanism to do these manipulations. Stored procs are also useful when you want to do Batch updates/exports/houseKeeping kind of stuff on the db. The overhead of a JDBC Connection may be significant in these cases.
23. How do I include static files within a JSP page? - Static resources should always be included using the JSP include directive. This way, the inclusion is performed just once during the translation phase. Do note that you should always supply a relative URL for the file attribute. Although you can also include static resources using the action, this is not advisable as the inclusion is then performed for each and every request.
24. Why does JComponent have add() and remove() methods but Component does not? - because JComponent is a subclass of Container, and can contain other components and jcomponents.
25. How can I implement a thread-safe JSP page? - You can make your JSPs thread-safe by having them implement the SingleThreadModel interface. This is done by adding the directive <%@ page isThreadSafe="false" % > within your JSP page.

Tough interview questions on EJB

1. How EJB Invocation happens? - Retrieve Home Object reference from Naming Service via JNDI. Return Home Object reference to the client. Create me a new EJB Object through Home Object interface. Create EJB Object from the Ejb Object. Return EJB Object reference to the client. Invoke business method using EJB Object reference. Delegate request to Bean (Enterprise Bean).
2. Is it possible to share an HttpSession between a JSP and EJB? What happens when I change a value in the HttpSession from inside an EJB? - You can pass the HttpSession as parameter to an EJB method, only if all objects in session are serializable.This has to be consider as passed-by-value, that means that it’s read-only in the EJB. If anything is altered from inside the EJB, it won’t be reflected back to the HttpSession of the Servlet Container.The pass-by-reference can be used between EJBs Remote Interfaces, as they are remote references. While it is possible to pass an HttpSession as a parameter to an EJB object, it is considered to be bad practice in terms of object-oriented design. This is because you are creating an unnecessary coupling between back-end objects (EJBs) and front-end objects (HttpSession). Create a higher-level of abstraction for your EJBs API. Rather than passing the whole, fat, HttpSession (which carries with it a bunch of http semantics), create a class that acts as a value object (or structure) that holds all the data you need to pass back and forth between front-end/back-end. Consider the case where your EJB needs to support a non HTTP-based client. This higher level of abstraction will be flexible enough to support it.
3. The EJB container implements the EJBHome and EJBObject classes. For every request from a unique client, does the container create a separate instance of the generated EJBHome and EJBObject classes? - The EJB container maintains an instance pool. The container uses these instances for the EJB Home reference irrespective of the client request. while refering the EJB Object classes the container creates a separate instance for each client request. The instance pool maintenance is up to the implementation of the container. If the container provides one, it is available otherwise it is not mandatory for the provider to implement it. Having said that, yes most of the container providers implement the pooling functionality to increase the performance of the application server. The way it is implemented is, again, up to the implementer.
4. Can the primary key in the entity bean be a Java primitive type such as int? - The primary key can’t be a primitive type. Use the primitive wrapper classes, instead. For example, you can use java.lang.Integer as the primary key class, but not int (it has to be a class, not a primitive).
5. Can you control when passivation occurs? - The developer, according to the specification, cannot directly control when passivation occurs. Although for Stateful Session Beans, the container cannot passivate an instance that is inside a transaction. So using transactions can be a a strategy to control passivation. The ejbPassivate() method is called during passivation, so the developer has control over what to do during this exercise and can implement the require optimized logic. Some EJB containers, such as BEA WebLogic, provide the ability to tune the container to minimize passivation calls. Taken from the WebLogic 6.0 DTD -”The passivation-strategy can be either “default” or “transaction”. With the default setting the container will attempt to keep a working set of beans in the cache. With the “transaction” setting, the container will passivate the bean after every transaction (or method call for a non-transactional invocation).
6. What is the advantage of using Entity bean for database operations, over directly using JDBC API to do database operations? When would I use one over the other? - Entity Beans actually represents the data in a database. It is not that Entity Beans replaces JDBC API. There are two types of Entity Beans Container Managed and Bean Mananged. In Container Managed Entity Bean - Whenever the instance of the bean is created the container automatically retrieves the data from the DB/Persistance storage and assigns to the object variables in bean for user to manipulate or use them. For this the developer needs to map the fields in the database to the variables in deployment descriptor files (which varies for each vendor). In the Bean Managed Entity Bean - The developer has to specifically make connection, retrive values, assign them to the objects in the ejbLoad() which will be called by the container when it instatiates a bean object. Similarly in the ejbStore() the container saves the object values back the the persistance storage. ejbLoad and ejbStore are callback methods and can be only invoked by the container. Apart from this, when you use Entity beans you dont need to worry about database transaction handling, database connection pooling etc. which are taken care by the ejb container.
7. What is EJB QL? - EJB QL is a Query Language provided for navigation across a network of enterprise beans and dependent objects defined by means of container managed persistence. EJB QL is introduced in the EJB 2.0 specification. The EJB QL query language defines finder methods for entity beans with container managed persistenceand is portable across containers and persistence managers. EJB QL is used for queries of two types of finder methods: Finder methods that are defined in the home interface of an entity bean and which return entity objects. Select methods, which are not exposed to the client, but which are used by the Bean Provider to select persistent values that are maintained by the Persistence Manager or to select entity objects that are related to the entity bean on which the query is defined.
8. Brief description about local interfaces? - EEJB was originally designed around remote invocation using the Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) mechanism, and later extended to support to standard CORBA transport for these calls using RMI/IIOP. This design allowed for maximum flexibility in developing applications without consideration for the deployment scenario, and was a strong feature in support of a goal of component reuse in J2EE. Many developers are using EJBs locally, that is, some or all of their EJB calls are between beans in a single container. With this feedback in mind, the EJB 2.0 expert group has created a local interface mechanism. The local interface may be defined for a bean during development, to allow streamlined calls to the bean if a caller is in the same container. This does not involve the overhead involved with RMI like marshalling etc. This facility will thus improve the performance of applications in which co-location is planned. Local interfaces also provide the foundation for container-managed relationships among entity beans with container-managed persistence.
9. What are the special design care that must be taken when you work with local interfaces? - It is important to understand that the calling semantics of local interfaces are different from those of remote interfaces. For example, remote interfaces pass parameters using call-by-value semantics, while local interfaces use call-by-reference. This means that in order to use local interfaces safely, application developers need to carefully consider potential deployment scenarios up front, then decide which interfaces can be local and which remote, and finally, develop the application code with these choices in mind. While EJB 2.0 local interfaces are extremely useful in some situations, the long-term costs of these choices, especially when changing requirements and component reuse are taken into account, need to be factored into the design decision.
10. What happens if remove( ) is never invoked on a session bean? - In case of a stateless session bean it may not matter if we call or not as in both cases nothing is done. The number of beans in cache is managed by the container. In case of stateful session bean, the bean may be kept in cache till either the session times out, in which case the bean is removed or when there is a requirement for memory in which case the data is cached and the bean is sent to free pool.
11. What is the difference between Message Driven Beans and Stateless Session beans? - In several ways, the dynamic creation and allocation of message-driven bean instances mimics the behavior of stateless session EJB instances, which exist only for the duration of a particular method call. However, message-driven beans are different from stateless session EJBs (and other types of EJBs) in several significant ways: Message-driven beans process multiple JMS messages asynchronously, rather than processing a serialized sequence of method calls. Message-driven beans have no home or remote interface, and therefore cannot be directly accessed by internal or external clients. Clients interact with message-driven beans only indirectly, by sending a message to a JMS Queue or Topic. Only the container directly interacts with a message-driven bean by creating bean instances and passing JMS messages to those instances as necessary. The Container maintains the entire lifecycle of a message-driven bean; instances cannot be created or removed as a result of client requests or other API calls.
12. How can I call one EJB from inside of another EJB? - EJBs can be clients of other EJBs. It just works. Use JNDI to locate the Home Interface of the other bean, then acquire an instance reference, and so forth.
13. What is an EJB Context? - EJBContext is an interface that is implemented by the container, and it is also a part of the bean-container contract. Entity beans use a subclass of EJBContext called EntityContext. Session beans use a subclass called SessionContext. These EJBContext objects provide the bean class with information about its container, the client using the bean and the bean itself. They also provide other functions. See the API docs and the spec for more details.
EJB interview questions
1. Is is possible for an EJB client to marshal an object of class java.lang.Class to an EJB? - Technically yes, spec. compliant NO! - The enterprise bean must not attempt to query a class to obtain information about the declared members that are not otherwise accessible to the enterprise bean because of the security rules of the Java language.
2. Is it legal to have static initializer blocks in EJB? - Although technically it is legal, static initializer blocks are used to execute some piece of code before executing any constructor or method while instantiating a class. Static initializer blocks are also typically used to initialize static fields - which may be illegal in EJB if they are read/write - In EJB this can be achieved by including the code in either the ejbCreate(), setSessionContext() or setEntityContext() methods.
3. Is it possible to stop the execution of a method before completion in a SessionBean? - Stopping the execution of a method inside a Session Bean is not possible without writing code inside the Session Bean. This is because you are not allowed to access Threads inside an EJB.
4. What is the default transaction attribute for an EJB? - There is no default transaction attribute for an EJB. Section 11.5 of EJB v1.1 spec says that the deployer must specify a value for the transaction attribute for those methods having container managed transaction. In WebLogic, the default transaction attribute for EJB is SUPPORTS.
5. What is the difference between session and entity beans? When should I use one or the other? - An entity bean represents persistent global data from the database; a session bean represents transient user-specific data that will die when the user disconnects (ends his session). Generally, the session beans implement business methods (e.g. Bank.transferFunds) that call entity beans (e.g. Account.deposit, Account.withdraw)
6. Is there any default cache management system with Entity beans ? In other words whether a cache of the data in database will be maintained in EJB ? - Caching data from a database inside the Application Server are what Entity EJB’s are used for.The ejbLoad() and ejbStore() methods are used to synchronize the Entity Bean state with the persistent storage(database). Transactions also play an important role in this scenario. If data is removed from the database, via an external application - your Entity Bean can still be “alive” the EJB container. When the transaction commits, ejbStore() is called and the row will not be found, and the transaction rolled back.
7. Why is ejbFindByPrimaryKey mandatory? - An Entity Bean represents persistent data that is stored outside of the EJB Container/Server. The ejbFindByPrimaryKey is a method used to locate and load an Entity Bean into the container, similar to a SELECT statement in SQL. By making this method mandatory, the client programmer can be assured that if they have the primary key of the Entity Bean, then they can retrieve the bean without having to create a new bean each time - which would mean creating duplications of persistent data and break the integrity of EJB.
8. Why do we have a remove method in both EJBHome and EJBObject? - With the EJBHome version of the remove, you are able to delete an entity bean without first instantiating it (you can provide a PrimaryKey object as a parameter to the remove method). The home version only works for entity beans. On the other hand, the Remote interface version works on an entity bean that you have already instantiated. In addition, the remote version also works on session beans (stateless and stateful) to inform the container of your loss of interest in this bean.
9. How can I call one EJB from inside of another EJB? - EJBs can be clients of other EJBs. It just works. Use JNDI to locate the Home Interface of the other bean, then acquire an instance reference, and so forth.
10. What is the difference between a Server, a Container, and a Connector? - An EJB server is an application, usually a product such as BEA WebLogic, that provides (or should provide) for concurrent client connections and manages system resources such as threads, processes, memory, database connections, network connections, etc. An EJB container runs inside (or within) an EJB server, and provides deployed EJB beans with transaction and security management, etc. The EJB container insulates an EJB bean from the specifics of an underlying EJB server by providing a simple, standard API between the EJB bean and its container. A Connector provides the ability for any Enterprise Information System (EIS) to plug into any EJB server which supports the Connector architecture. See Sun’s J2EE Connectors for more in-depth information on Connectors.
11. How is persistence implemented in enterprise beans? - Persistence in EJB is taken care of in two ways, depending on how you implement your beans: container managed persistence (CMP) or bean managed persistence (BMP) For CMP, the EJB container which your beans run under takes care of the persistence of the fields you have declared to be persisted with the database - this declaration is in the deployment descriptor. So, anytime you modify a field in a CMP bean, as soon as the method you have executed is finished, the new data is persisted to the database by the container. For BMP, the EJB bean developer is responsible for defining the persistence routines in the proper places in the bean, for instance, the ejbCreate(), ejbStore(), ejbRemove() methods would be developed by the bean developer to make calls to the database. The container is responsible, in BMP, to call the appropriate method on the bean. So, if the bean is being looked up, when the create() method is called on the Home interface, then the container is responsible for calling the ejbCreate() method in the bean, which should have functionality inside for going to the database and looking up the data.
12. What is an EJB Context? - EJBContext is an interface that is implemented by the container, and it is also a part of the bean-container contract. Entity beans use a subclass of EJBContext called EntityContext. Session beans use a subclass called SessionContext. These EJBContext objects provide the bean class with information about its container, the client using the bean and the bean itself. They also provide other functions. See the API docs and the spec for more details.
13. Is method overloading allowed in EJB? - Yes you can overload methods
14. Should synchronization primitives be used on bean methods? - No. The EJB specification specifically states that the enterprise bean is not allowed to use thread primitives. The container is responsible for managing concurrent access to beans at runtime.
15. Are we allowed to change the transaction isolation property in middle of a transaction? - No. You cannot change the transaction isolation level in the middle of transaction.
16. For Entity Beans, What happens to an instance field not mapped to any persistent storage, when the bean is passivated? - The specification infers that the container never serializes an instance of an Entity bean (unlike stateful session beans). Thus passivation simply involves moving the bean from the “ready” to the “pooled” bin. So what happens to the contents of an instance variable is controlled by the programmer. Remember that when an entity bean is passivated the instance gets logically disassociated from it’s remote object. Be careful here, as the functionality of passivation/activation for Stateless Session, Stateful Session and Entity beans is completely different. For entity beans the ejbPassivate method notifies the entity bean that it is being disassociated with a particular entity prior to reuse or for dereference.
17. What is a Message Driven Bean, what functions does a message driven bean have and how do they work in collaboration with JMS? - Message driven beans are the latest addition to the family of component bean types defined by the EJB specification. The original bean types include session beans, which contain business logic and maintain a state associated with client sessions, and entity beans, which map objects to persistent data. Message driven beans will provide asynchrony to EJB based applications by acting as JMS message consumers. A message bean is associated with a JMS topic or queue and receives JMS messages sent by EJB clients or other beans. Unlike entity beans and session beans, message beans do not have home or remote interfaces. Instead, message driven beans are instantiated by the container as required. Like stateless session beans, message beans maintain no client-specific state, allowing the container to optimally manage a pool of message-bean instances. Clients send JMS messages to message beans in exactly the same manner as they would send messages to any other JMS destination. This similarity is a fundamental design goal of the JMS capabilities of the new specification. To receive JMS messages, message driven beans implement the javax.jms.MessageListener interface, which defines a single “onMessage()” method. When a message arrives, the container ensures that a message bean corresponding to the message topic/queue exists (instantiating it if necessary), and calls its onMessage method passing the client’s message as the single argument. The message bean’s implementation of this method contains the business logic required to process the message. Note that session beans and entity beans are not allowed to function as message beans.
18. Does RMI-IIOP support code downloading for Java objects sent by value across an IIOP connection in the same way as RMI does across a JRMP connection? - Yes. The JDK 1.2 support the dynamic class loading.
19. The EJB container implements the EJBHome and EJBObject classes. For every request from a unique client, does the container create a separate instance of the generated EJBHome and EJBObject classes? - The EJB container maintains an instance pool. The container uses these instances for the EJB Home reference irrespective of the client request. while refering the EJB Object classes the container creates a separate instance for each client request. The instance pool maintainence is up to the implementation of the container. If the container provides one, it is available otherwise it is not mandatory for the provider to implement it. Having said that, yes most of the container providers implement the pooling functionality to increase the performance of the application server. The way it is implemented is again up to the implementer.
20. What is the advantage of putting an Entity Bean instance from the “Ready State” to “Pooled state”? - The idea of the “Pooled State” is to allow a container to maintain a pool of entity beans that has been created, but has not been yet “synchronized” or assigned to an EJBObject. This mean that the instances do represent entity beans, but they can be used only for serving Home methods (create or findBy), since those methods do not relay on the specific values of the bean. All these instances are, in fact, exactly the same, so, they do not have meaningful state. Jon Thorarinsson has also added: It can be looked at it this way: If no client is using an entity bean of a particular type there is no need for cachig it (the data is persisted in the database). Therefore, in such cases, the container will, after some time, move the entity bean from the “Ready State” to the “Pooled state” to save memory. Then, to save additional memory, the container may begin moving entity beans from the “Pooled State” to the “Does Not Exist State”, because even though the bean’s cache has been cleared, the bean still takes up some memory just being in the “Pooled State”.
21. Can a Session Bean be defined without ejbCreate() method? - The ejbCreate() methods is part of the bean’s lifecycle, so, the compiler will not return an error because there is no ejbCreate() method. However, the J2EE spec is explicit: the home interface of a Stateless Session Bean must have a single create() method with no arguments, while the session bean class must contain exactly one ejbCreate() method, also without arguments. Stateful Session Beans can have arguments (more than one create method) stateful beans can contain multiple ejbCreate() as long as they match with the home interface definition. You need a reference to your EJBObject to startwith. For that Sun insists on putting a method for creating that reference (create method in the home interface). The EJBObject does matter here. Not the actual bean.
22. Is it possible to share an HttpSession between a JSP and EJB? What happens when I change a value in the HttpSession from inside an EJB? - You can pass the HttpSession as parameter to an EJB method, only if all objects in session are serializable.This has to be consider as “passed-by-value”, that means that it’s read-only in the EJB. If anything is altered from inside the EJB, it won’t be reflected back to the HttpSession of the Servlet Container.The “pass-by-reference” can be used between EJBs Remote Interfaces, as they are remote references. While it IS possible to pass an HttpSession as a parameter to an EJB object, it is considered to be “bad practice (1)” in terms of object oriented design. This is because you are creating an unnecessary coupling between back-end objects (ejbs) and front-end objects (HttpSession). Create a higher-level of abstraction for your ejb’s api. Rather than passing the whole, fat, HttpSession (which carries with it a bunch of http semantics), create a class that acts as a value object (or structure) that holds all the data you need to pass back and forth between front-end/back-end. Consider the case where your ejb needs to support a non-http-based client. This higher level of abstraction will be flexible enough to support it. (1) Core J2EE design patterns (2001)
23. Is there any way to read values from an entity bean without locking it for the rest of the transaction (e.g. read-only transactions)? We have a key-value map bean which deadlocks during some concurrent reads. Isolation levels seem to affect the database only, and we need to work within a transaction. - The only thing that comes to (my) mind is that you could write a ‘group accessor’ - a method that returns a single object containing all of your entity bean’s attributes (or all interesting attributes). This method could then be placed in a ‘Requires New’ transaction. This way, the current transaction would be suspended for the duration of the call to the entity bean and the entity bean’s fetch/operate/commit cycle will be in a separate transaction and any locks should be released immediately. Depending on the granularity of what you need to pull out of the map, the group accessor might be overkill.
24. What is the difference between a “Coarse Grained” Entity Bean and a “Fine Grained” Entity Bean? - A ‘fine grained’ entity bean is pretty much directly mapped to one relational table, in third normal form. A ‘coarse grained’ entity bean is larger and more complex, either because its attributes include values or lists from other tables, or because it ‘owns’ one or more sets of dependent objects. Note that the coarse grained bean might be mapped to a single table or flat file, but that single table is going to be pretty ugly, with data copied from other tables, repeated field groups, columns that are dependent on non-key fields, etc. Fine grained entities are generally considered a liability in large systems because they will tend to increase the load on several of the EJB server’s subsystems (there will be more objects exported through the distribution layer, more objects participating in transactions, more skeletons in memory, more EJB Objects in memory, etc.)
25. What is EJBDoclet? - EJBDoclet is an open source JavaDoc doclet that generates a lot of the EJB related source files from custom JavaDoc comments tags embedded in the EJB source file.